Alimentary system

Features of the structure and operation of the rectum

Rectum (rectum - Lat.) Is part of the gastrointestinal tract, and the final section of the colon; in her stool accumulate, and then discharged to the outside. Rectum length of about 17 cm in the adult (13 to 23 cm) located in the pelvic cavity. The diameter of the rectum is in different departments ranging from 2.5 to 7.5 cm. It starts from the bottom of the sigmoid colon and anus opens. The rectum does not justify its name, because it has two bends in the longitudinal plane, as shown in the figure. First (sacral) bending corresponds concavity of the sacrum and is convex posteriorly.


Undigested food mass comes from the small intestine into the large. The title of this section of the bowel is also related to its diameter, reaching in some places to 7 cm. The length of the large intestine ranges from 1.0 to 1.5 m.

Small intestine

For the duodenum should be the longest (about 4 -7 m) section of the intestine, called the small intestine, which includes lean and ileum. This intestine performs all the basic processes of digestion.


Duodenum - the initial intestine about 25 cm long. Its main task is to manage the work next door stomach - it acid regulation and motor functions.


Bowel function, as well as the stomach, quite diverse, hence its complex structure. In the intestine secrete several differing anatomical divisions. This duodenum, jejunum and ileum, cecum, ascending, transverse and descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. Lower intestine opens outside anus, or the anus. 


Accumulation in the stomach, food chopping and grinding. Under the action of the active gastric digestion begins, i.e. the conversion of food into simple chemicals. The variety of functions of the stomach determines its structure. Outwardly, it resembles a bag full of food that is able to grow in size due to the elasticity of the wall. Distended stomach can hold about two liters of food. The output of the stomach has a special muscular valve or sphincter. Sphincter closes the outlet from the stomach and prevents premature entry of food into the duodenum of the masses. 


The esophagus is a corridor for the passage of the bolus of the oral cavity into the stomach. He is a tube whose walls consist of several layers of muscle fibers. From within the muscular wall of the esophagus is lined with mucous membrane, facilitates the movement of the bolus and protect walls from minor mechanical damage. Muscular tube, the esophagus is able to contract and expand, thereby pushing the bolus into the stomach.


The oral cavity is the gastrointestinal tract, where it starts to food processing, the so-called "hallway". With the help of tongue and teeth food thoroughly mixed, crushed and frays, turning into a homogeneous mass. Through the ducts of the salivary glands into the oral cavity directly salivate wetting food. Digestive enzymes saliva, chief among which is amylase, begin to decompose nutrients into simple compounds.

Processing food in the gastrointestinal tract

As you know, power - a complex and dynamic process proceeds, digestion, absorption and assimilation in the body of nutrients needed to replenish energy, cell structure and body tissues and regulation of body functions. A complete cycle of food processing (digestion) occurs in the digestive system. It is a complex organ, function is the chemical processing of nutrients, intake of processed foods and discharge of undigested and harmful for the body components.

How to eat properly

The process of digestion is usually a source of great pleasure and well-being, the key to health, but it can be the cause of pain and cramps, bloating and the appearance of the feeling of heaviness in the abdomen, painful flatus and violations of the chair - in other words, of the disease.How to avoid all these troubles? First of all, we should stick to simple rules. Rule one: do not rush while eating, chew food, to how to grind and moisten it with saliva.